Bangalore-based PathShodh Healthcare, a startup at the Entrepreneurship Centre of the Indian Institute of Science, has developed a hand-held device to measure eight vital parameters for diabetes, kidney failure, chronic anaemia, and malnutrition.
The device, called anuPath, has been developed by Dr. Vinay Kumar along with Professor Navakanta Bhat of Indian Institute of Science and a friend, Gautam Sharma.
According to a recent International Diabetes Federation (IDF) report, diabetes currently affects over 425 million people worldwide, and the figure is expected to reach 629 million by 2045. With 73 million diabetics, India ranks second in the world after China.
People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of serious health problems. Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and teeth. In addition, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections, says the IDF report.
Currently, anuPath can test for hemoglobin, HbA1C, glycated albumin, blood glucose, serum albumin, microalbuminuria, urine ACR, and urine creatinine. It will be extendable to other markers (glycated albumin, serum creatinine, serum bilirubin, etc.) in the future. It works on a non-enzymatic- and non-antibody-based electrochemical biosensing technology. The measurement is done on electrochemical disposable test strips that contain a membrane infused with patented sensing substances. For each biomarker there is a separate disposable strip. When the user places the required sample on the electrochemical disposable test strip, anuPath detects the electrochemical outcomes and the deciphered results are displayed on the digital monitor within a minute. This enables the patient to get a comprehensive report of the status of the disease, which is essential in disease management. Read full research paper.
Presently, it can store one lakh patient reports, making it easier to share with doctors. With one international patent and eight in process, anuPath costs Rs. 50,000. The team is working on a cost effective model of about Rs. 5,000 – Rs. 10,000 for individual users to use it at home. Read more
At the 2015 MIT Design Innovation workshop, a MIT Media Lab India initiative, a group of students and professionals has created a mobile application called Blood Collective that allows those in need of blood to search for voluntary blood donors available in the vicinity.
The team developed the application prototype at the 2015 MIT Design Innovation Workshop in Gandhinagar as part of the Civic Innovation track which focused on building “the tools that help change the world together”and “a better technological infrastructure to support the engaged citizens who are already acting to make their communities better, and inspire others to join them”.
Combining different skills, each team member contributed differently to create the alpha version of the app and test it during the workshop. While IT industry professional Pragnendra Rahevar (32) floated the idea and shared the concept, National Institute of Design graduate Akshah Ish (27) designed the complete user interface of the application. The core development of the app has been done by Ayush Sharma (20) of Arya College of Engineering and IT, Jaipur, with necessary research and support provided by Abhimanyu Kumar (20) of Haldia Institute of Technology, West Bengal.
Bridging the Gap
Voluntary blood donation is considered the highest form of humanitarian service as it is done without the expectation of knowing who it will eventually help. Each unit of blood donation helps many patients as blood is usually segregated into RBCs, Platelets, WBCs and Plasma and given away as per requirement. But then there are yet not enough people who opt to donate blood.
In India there is constant shortage of blood. According to a 2012 World Health Organization (WHO), every country needs at least a one percent blood reserve. India, with its 1.2 billion population, needs 12 million units of blood annually but collects only nine million of which 70 percent is from voluntary blood donors while the remaining 30 percent is from family/replacement donors.
Even though most blood collection is done from voluntary donors, the voluntary blood donors network remains fragmented and inaccessible to a large community at the time of need. The Blood Collective smartphone application aims to tap into this existing network of blood donors and bring them at your fingertips.
“In India it is just a chance that you will get blood when you need it. Some people do not want to donate blood, while some who are willing to do it find it frustrating to go to the blood banks criteria, fill forms and donate. Tapping into the community of voluntary blood donors therefore remains a challenge. The current gap between the demand for blood and its supply also leaves scope for touts, agents and illegal, unsafe blood donation. Paid blood donation is illegal in India. Our application targets the problem in a simple manner – if you need blood, connect directly with multiple blood donors close by and see if any of them is willing to offer help,” explains Ayush.
How it works
During the workshop the alpha version of the Indian-centric app was hosted on local servers and directly uploaded to a few mobile phones. However, based on the feedback from mentors and users, with the help of a few volunteers the team is now developing the beta version of the app.
The app is expected to function like this: The first time the user accesses the application, she will be requested to select from the two categories “I want blood” or “I want to volunteer”. Once a voluntary blood donor selects the latter option, her name and number gets registered in the database. However, for safety reasons, the name and number of the donor is not shared with the requester. Rather, when the requester searches for a donor in the vicinity, she can view profile icons of the available donors and can send a request to them through the app. The requester’s number is sent to the donor and the decision to respond entirely rests with the donor.
The volunteer category also enables the voluntary blood donors to see all requests, allowing the user to contact the requester directly and offer blood donation.
“The most important aspect of the app is to generate awareness about safety of blood donation and encourage volunteering. Currently, whenever people need blood, they either opt to call, send SMS or post on social networking websites. The wait for a response is stressful. At blood banks, if you have donated blood in past six months, you may be charged around Rs. 1,400 per unit. If you haven’t, the chances of getting blood are dismal. The solution to all this is volunteered blood donation. Bringing volunteer blood donors closer to the needy therefore could be very helpful and that is the focus of the Blood Collective app. Using the app, both a volunteer and a requester can save lives,” explains Pragnendra who has been volunteering with a non-profit organization for over three years, organizing blood donation camps across the country.
The team is developing the beta version of the app and improving its user interface, adding more features to it, and carrying out basic user testing. It is expected to be available on the Web and on Google Play store by May 2015. The group is looking for more volunteers with specialized skills to develop the application for the iOS and Windows platforms.
The Blood Collective mobile app has a huge social potential to connect and build a large network of voluntary blood donors with the requesters, allowing the common man to save lives and be human. However, it needs to build on its unique aspects that will differentiate it from the existing apps.
A student of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi, Ambar Srivastava, has developed a mobile phone-size haemoglobin metre, called TrueHb Hemometer, which works like a conventional glucometer with a tiny drop of blood from a pinprick on the disposable strip.
TrueHb has been validated by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) for its efficacy, and is expected to help identify and tackle anaemia effectively. It is the first case of innovation from the IIT-Delhi’s biomedical engineering department getting “productized”.
TrueHb works like a conventional glucometer with just a tiny drop of blood from a pinprick on the disposable strip. It not only reads the accurate level within 45 seconds, but also stores up to 1,000 such readings. It can be charged like a mobile phone and allows up to 300 tests per charge. While the price of the TrueHb meter has not been fixed as of now, it is expected to be cheaper than most other similar devices in the market, which cost well over Rs 25,000.
It will be very useful on the field for health workers, blood banks, primary health centres, the school health scheme of the government, and all point of care use, including for use at home, explained Srivastava. Read more in the report by Rema Nagarajan.
A biopsy is done to diagnose the extent and type of damage to the liver caused by hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer, by extracting a tissue sample with a needle, especially after a chronic or abnormal condition is indicated by blood tests, an X ray or ultrasound. Although biopsy is a key tool in diagnostics, the risk of internal bleeding, contamination, or infection cannot be ruled out.
Bangalore-based startup IndioLabs (IL) has developed ‘BioScoop’, a cost-effective procedure that could revolutionize the way a biopsy is done. It extracts tissue automatically, eliminating the possibility of contamination and other problems associated with conventional biopsy, all in three seconds.
The device consists of a multifunctional needle that pierces the skin and cuts soft liver tissue in one clean ‘scooping’ action. It is integrated with a ‘BxSeal’ system, which delivers a sealant directly to the spot from where the tissue is removed to prevent blood-loss and complications.
IndioLabs has filed Indian and international patents for both technologies and is pursuing regulatory approval for marketing clearance by 2014. The company is likely to launch ‘BioScoop’ in India by March 2015. Read more
A team of researchers, including Indian-origin scientist Dr. Raghu Kalluri, at University of Texas’ MD Anderson’s Department of Cancer Biology, suggest it is possible to develop a simple blood test to see if gene mutations associated with pancreatic cancer exist without the need of locating and testing tumor tissue.
The team discussed the discovery of tiny particles called ‘exosomes,’ which are shed by cancer cells into the blood, containing the entire genetic blueprint of cancer cells. The team believes by decoding this genomic data and looking for deletions and mutations associated with cancer, they could develop a test that helps physicians detect cancer and treat patients.
Dr. Kalluri said that because different forms of cancer are associated with different chromosomal mutations, they believe analysis of exosome DNA taken from blood samples may not only help determine the presence of a cancerous tumor somewhere in the body, but also identify mutations without a need for tumor sample. Read more in the DNA report.